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SPECT2116

Gamma-Ray Portable Spectrometer
The SPECT2116 Spectrometer is the state-of-the-art portable hand-held radiation survey meter devices for using in the geophysical industry. It offers an integrated design with a large detector, direct Spect data, data storage, full weather protection, ease of use and highest sensitivity in the market segment. four types 1.6" or 2" size with NaI(Tl) or BGO crystal.

Features:

  • High sensitivity NaI or BGO crystal 

  • Size 40mmx40mm (3 inch3) and 2"x2" (6.28 inch3)

  • Ultra high speed: real 100msec sampling interval

  • SPECT mode with save all data in 4096 Channel

  • Survey mode with search capability 

  • Easy to use, single button operation

  • Display:

    • IPS LCD 240 x 320 (pixels) with all viewing angle readable 

    • 6-digit LCD display with high count rate over 500,000 CPS

    • Scrolling histogram graph display of the last 220 reading

    • High contrast 1:1000 

    • full viewing angle (160D)

    • sunlight readable

    • Display colors: 65K/262K

    • Display mode: Transmissive/ Normally Black

    •  High-definition Luminance : 800cd/m2 (800nit : 233fL)

  • Fast audio output with adjustable audio threshold set point
  • Special rugged design to withstand typical field usage, waterproof against streaming water and fully dust protected
  • Lightweight & rugged (1.8 kg) including batteries
  • Supplied in hard case with molded insert foam for shipping & storage
  • Low power (li-ion batteries) typical 8-12 hour battery life at 20°C
  • No radioactive sources required for proper operation
  • Internal military GPS

Description:

The SPECT2116 Spectrometer is the state-of-the-art portable hand-held radiation survey meter devices for using in the geophysical industry. It offers an integrated design with a large detector, direct Spect data, data storage, full weather protection, ease of use and highest sensitivity in the market segment. 
The spectrometer is auto-stabilizing on the naturally occurring (K, U, & Th) radioactivity and does not require any test sources.
With this convenient, handheld instrument offers the equivalent performance of much larger, and more costly, portable units.

Performance:

  •  Operating Temperature: -10°C to +50°C.
  •  Rechargeable battery kit
  •  Upgradable to Pro version with 100msec survey log option at an additional charge
  •  Control: Single one button, thumb activated, One key operation
  •  Internal Memory: 32MB (Pro version 128MB-8GB)
  •  Data Output: Standard CSV file
  •  Interface port: USB 2.0
  •  Alarm: 
    •  Audio via miniature speaker
    •  Variable audio threshold set point
    •  Audio voice proportional to the count rate

Standard Accessories:

  • CFP SPECT2116 Spectrometer
  • CD User guide
  • Supplied in hard case with foam insert
  • Std 3-cell lithium ion battery
  • Intelligent Battery charger
  • Backup battery (optional)

Electrical And Mechanical Power Required :

  • Standard version 5V/400mA (2Wh)
  • Net weight: 1.8 kg
  • Shipping weight: 3.8 kg
  • Dimensions & Package style 44 X 35 X 20 cm (L X H X W)

User interface :

ui01 ui02 

Display: 
  • 240 x 320 pixels, 2.5” 
  • Color IPS LCD display with backlight
  • 800 nits LCD brightness
  • Counts in CPS from 0 to 500,000 and histogram chart
Energy Response:
  • 20 keV 4000 keV
Internal Sampling:
  • 50 / second (base sampling rate)
  • 10 / second (show sampling rate)
Batteries:
  • 3 Li-ion cell (rechargeable)
  • Battery Life: over 12 hours at 20°C
Catalog
File Format Spectrometer-SPECT2116-Catalog.pdf en 4/27/2016 9:26:33 AM
Mechanical
File Format SPECT2116-Mechanical.pdf en 7/28/2016 10:22:35 AM

Applications:

  • Determination of concentrations of natural radioactive elements (K % , U ppm , TH ppm)
  • artificial radiation sources identification
  • dose rate measurement
  • radiation monitoring and mapping
  • geological and raw material survey (uranium ore)
  • laboratory assays
  • health care

Gamma Surveyor offers three basic measuring modes:

  • Spectra & Assay - spectral measurements with determination of K % , U ppm , TH ppm concentrations
  • Dose rate - precise radiometric measurements
  • Search - quick and selective search for gamma-ray sources (1 sec response time)

The measuring system supports point, profile, and continuous measurements as well as the use of external GPS data.

The methodology is based on the recommendation of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 

The factory calibration is done on high-volume standards.

More Information sees this tables. (Ref minty geophysics)

Fundamentals

  1. Grasty, R.L., 1979, Gamma-ray spectrometric methods in uranium exploration – theory and operational procedures: In Geophysics and Geochemistry in the Search for Metallic Ores; ed. P.J. Hood, Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report 31, 147-161.
  1. Grasty, R.L., 1997. Radon emanation and soil moisture effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements. Geophysics, v. 62, n. 5, 1379-1385.
  1. IAEA, 2003, Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma-ray spectrometry data: IAEA-TECDOC-1363, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  1. Løvborg, L., Mose, E., 1987. Counting statistics in radioelement assaying with a portable spectrometer. Geophysics, v. 52, n.4, 555-563.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., 1997. Fundamentals of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, v. 17, n. 2, 39-50.

Standards

  1. Grasty R.L., Minty B.R.S., 1995. A guide to the technical specifications for airborne gamma-ray surveys. Australian Geological Survey Organisation Record 1995/60.
  1. IAEA, 1989. Construction and Use of Calibration Facilities for Radiometric Field Equipment. Technical Reports Series No. 309, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  1. IAEA, 1991. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveying. Technical Report Series, No. 323. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  1. IAEA, 2003, Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma-ray spectrometry data: IAEA-TECDOC-1363, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Spectral noise reduction

  1. Dickson, B. and Taylor, G., 1998, Noise reduction on aerial gamma-ray surveys: Exploration Geophysics, 29(3/4), 324-329.
  1. Grasty, R.L., 2001. Spectral component analysis applied to portable gamma ray spectrometry. Extended Abstracts, 15th Geophysical Conference, Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
  1. Green A.A., Berman M., Switzer P., Craig M.D., 1988. A transformation for ordering multispectral data in terms of image quality with implications for noise removal. IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing, GE-26, 65-74.
  1. Hovgaard, J., 1997, A new processing technique for airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data (Noise adjusted singular value decomposition): Am Nucl. Soc. Sixth topical meeting on Emergency Preparedness and Response, pp. 123-127, San Fransisco, April 22-25,1997.
  1. Hovgaard, J., and Grasty, R.L., 1997. Reducing statistical noise in airborne gamma-ray data through spectral component analysis. In “Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial Conference on Mineral Exploration” edited by A.G. Gubins, 753-764.
  1. Lee, J.B., Woodyatt, A.S. and Berman M., 1990, Enhancement of high spectral resolution remote-sensing data by a noise-adjusted principal components transform: IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing, v. 28(3), 295-304.
  1. Minty, B.R.S. 2000. Reducing noise in airborne gamma-ray spectra. Preview, Issue n. 89.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., and Hovgaard, J., 2002, Reducing noise in gamma-ray spectra using spectral component analysis: Exploration Geophysics, 33 (3/4),172-176.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., McFadden, P., 1998. Improved NASVD smoothing of airborne gamma-ray spectra. Exploration Geophysics, v. 29, n. 3/4, 516-523.
  1. Switzer P. and Green A., 1984, Min/max autocorrelation factors for multivariate spatial imagery: Dept. of Statistics, Stanford University, Tech. Rep. 6.

Calibration and data processing

  1. Billings, S.D., 1998. Geophysical aspects of soil mapping using airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Ph.D. thesis (unpublished), University of Sydney, 1998.
  1. Billings, S.D., Hovgaard, J., 1999. Modeling detector response in airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Geophysics, v. 64, 1378-1392.
  1. Billings, S.D., Minty, B.R.S. and Newsam, G.N., 2003. Deconvolution and spatial resolution of airborne gamma-ray surveys. Geophysics, 68 (4), 1257-1266.
  1. Craig, M., Dickinson, B., Rodrigues, S., 1999. Correcting aerial gamma-ray survey data for aircraft altitude. Exploration Geophysics, v. 30, 161-166.
  1. Grasty, R.L., 1982. Direct snow-water equivalent measurement by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Journal of Hydrology, v. 55, 213-235.
  1. Grasty, R.L., 1987. The design, construction and application of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer calibration pads – Thailand. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 87-10.
  1. Grasty, R.L., Holman, P.B., Blanchard, Y., 1991. Transportable calibration pads for ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Geol. Survey. Can. Paper (1991) 90-23.
  1. Grasty, R.L., Tauchid, M., Torres, M., 1995. Standardization of old gamma-ray survey data. Application of uranium exploration data and techniques in environmental studies, IAEA-TECDOC-827, IAEA, Vienna, 35-45.
  1. Green, A.A., 1987. Leveling airborne gamma-radiation data using between-channel correlation information. Geophysics, v. 52, 1557-1562.
  1. Horsfall, K.R., 1997 Airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data acquisition. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, v.17, n.2, 159-174.
  1. Jurza P., Campbell I., Robinson P., Wackerle R., Cunneen P., Pavlík B. (2005) Use of 214Pb photopeaks for radon removal: utilising current airborne gamma-ray spectrometer technology and data processing. Exploration Geophysics 36, 322–328.
  1. Løvborg, L., 1984. The calibration of portable and airborne gamma-ray spectrometers - theory, problems and facilities. Report Riso-M-2456, Roskilde.
  1. Lovborg, L., Botter-Jenson, L., and Kirkegaard, P., 1978. Experiences with concrete calibration sources for radiometric field instruments. Geophysics, 43(3), 543-549.
  1. Minty, B.R.S. 1998. Multichannel models for the estimation of radon background in airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Geophysics, v. 63, n. 6, 1986-1996.
  1. Minty, B., Luyendyk, A., Brodie, R., 1997. Calibration and data processing for airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, v. 17, n. 2, 51-62.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., 2001. Discussion on “Noise reduction of aerial gamma-ray surveys” (B. Dickson and G. Taylor). Exploration Geophysics, 32, 129-130.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., and Hovgaard, J., 2002. Reducing noise in gamma-ray spectrometry using spectral component analysis. Exploration Geophysics, 33, 172-176.
  1. Minty, B.R.S., 2003. Accurate noise reduction for airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Exploration Geophysics, 34 (3), 207-215.
  1. Minty, B., Franklin, R., Milligan, P., Richardson, L.M., and Wilford, J., 2009, The Radiometric Map of Australia: Exploration Geophysics, 40 (4), 325-333.
  1. Minty, B., 2011. Short note: on the use of radioelement ratios to enhance gamma-ray spectrometric data. Exploration Geophysics, 42(1), 116-120.
  1. Richards, D., 2001. Calibration and use of portable gamma-ray spectrometers: Part 1 – calibration. Preview, 94, 18-22.
  1. Richards, D., 2001. Calibration and use of portable gamma-ray spectrometers: Part 2 – field procedures and calculation of ground concentrations. Preview, 95, 23-25.
  1. Schwarz, G.F., Klingele, E.E., Rybach, L., 1992. How to handle rugged topography in airborne gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. First Break, v. 10, n. 1, 11-17.

Interpretation

  1. An, P., Chung, C.F., Rencz, A.N., 1995. Digital lithology mapping from airborne geophysical and remote sensing data in the Melville Peninsula, northern Canada using a neural network approach. Remote Sensing of. Environment, v. 53, 76-84.
  1. Anderson, H., Nash, C., 1997. Integrated lithostructural mapping of the Rossing area, Namibia using high resolution aeromagnetic, radiometric, Landsat data and aerial photographs. Exploration Geophysics, v. 28, 185-191.
  1. Aspin, S. J and Bierwirth, P. N., 1997 – GIS analysis of the effects of forest biomass on gamma-radiometrics images. In: Proceedings 3rd National Forum on GIS in the Geosciences, Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Record 1997/36.
  1. Bierwirth, P., 1996. Investigation of airborne gamma-ray images as a rapid mapping tool for soil and land degradation: Wagga Wagga, NSW. Australian Geological Survey Organi-sation, Record 1996/22.
  1. Bodorkos, S., Sandiford, M., Minty, B.R.S. and Blewett, R.S., 2004. A high-resolution, calibrated airborne radiometric dataset applied to the estimation of crustal heat production in the Archaean northern Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Precambrian Research, 128, 57-82.
  1. Chan, L.S., Wong, P.W., Chen, Q.F., 2007. Abundances of radioelements (K, U, Th) in weathered igneous rocks in Hong Kong. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 4, 85–292.
  1. Charbonneau, B.W., 1991. Geochemical evolution and radioactive mineralogy of the Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories, Canada. In Primary Radioactive Minerals (The textural patterns of radioactive mineral paragenetic associations). Theophrastus Publications, Athens, Greece, 21-48.
  1. Cook SE, Corner RJ, Groves, P.R., Grealish G .J., 1996b – Use of airborne gamma-radiometric data for soil mapping. Australian Journal of Soil Research 34, 183-194.
  1. Curto, J.B., Augusto C. B. Pires, Adalene M. Silva and Alvaro P. Crosta, 2012, The role of airborne geophysics for detecting hydrocarbon microseepages and related structural features; the case of Remanso do Fogo, Brazil: Geophysics(April 2012), 77(2):B35-B41.
  1. Dauth, C., 1997 – Airborne magnetic, radiometric and satellite imagery for regolith mapping in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia, Exploration Geophysics, Vol 28, pp199-203.
  1. De Meijer, R. J., Tanczos, I. C and Stapel, C., 1994. Radiometric techniques in heavy mineral exploration and exploitation, Exploration and Mining Geology, 3, 389-398.
  1. Davis, J. and Guilbert,J.M., 1973. Distribution of the radioelements potassium, uranium and thorium in selected porphyry copper deposits. Economic Geology, 68, 145-160.
  1. Dickson, B L., 1995 – Uranium-series disequilibrium in Australian soils and its effect on aerial gamma-ray surveys, Jour-nal of geochemical exploration, 54, 177-186.
  1. Dickson, B.L., Fraser, S.J and Kinsey-Henderson, A., 1996 – Interpreting aerial gamma-ray surveys utilising geomor-phological and weathering models, Journal of Geochemical exploration, 57 (1996) 75-88.
  1. Dickson, B.L., Scott, K.M., 1997. Interpretation of aerial gamma-ray surveys - adding the geochemical factors. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, v. 17, n.2, 187-200.
  1. Dickson, B.L and Scott, K. M., 1989 – Radioelement distribution in rocks and soils at the Copper Hill Cu-Au deposit, CSIRO Division of Exploration Geoscience, Report 45R.
  1. Eberle, D., 1993, Geological mapping based on multivariate statistical analysis of airborne geophysical data. ITC Journal 1993-2, 173-178.
  1. Fullagar, P.K., Fallon, G.N., 1997. Geophysics in metalliferous mines for ore body delineation and rock mass characterisation. In “Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial Conference on Mineral Exploration” edited by A.G. Gubins, 573-584.
  1. Galbraith, J.H., Saunders, D.F., 1983. Rock classification by characteristics of aerial gamma ray measurements. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 18, 49–73.
  1. Giblin A. M and Dickson, B. L 1984 – Hydrogeochemical interpretations of apparent anomalies in base metals and radium in groundwaters near Lake Maurice in the Great Victo-rian Desert (abstract) J. Geochem Explor. 22, 361-362.
  1. Gnojek, I., Prichystal, A., 1985. A new zinc mineralization detected by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in Northern Moravia (Czechoslovakia). Geoexploranium, 23, 491-502.
  1. Goosens, M.A., 1992. Petrogenesis of the mineralised granitic intrusion near Los Santos, Spain, and remote sensing and data integration as a tool in regional exploration for granite related mineralization. PhD Thesis, 148 p.
  1. Gourlay, R and Sparks, T., 1996, Value adding to radiometrics for mapping soil properties: 8th Australasian Remote Sens-ing Conference, Canberra.
  1. Graham, D.F., Bonham-Carter, G.F., 1993. Airborne radiometric data: a tool for reconnaissance geological mapping using a GIS. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v.58, n.8, 1243-1249.
  1. Harris, J.R., 1989. Clustering of gamma-ray spectrometer data using a computer image analysis system. In Statistical Applications in the Earth Sciences, edited by Agterberg and Bonham-Carter, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 89-9, 19-31.
  1. Jaques, A.L., Wellman P., Whitaker, A., Wyborn, D., 1997. High resolution geophysics in modern geological mapping. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, v. 17, n.2, 159-174.
  1. Jayawardhana, P.M., Sheard, S.N., 1997. The use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration – A case study from the Mount Isa Inlier, northwest Queensland, Australia. In Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decen-nial Conference on Mineral Exploration” edited by A.G. Gubins, 765-774 (reprinted in 2000, Geophysics, v. 65, n. 6, 1993-2000).
  1. Killeen, P.G., 1979. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods in uranium exploration - application and interpretation. In: Hood, P.J. (editor), Geophysics and geochemistry in the search for metallic ores. Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report 31, 163-229.
  1. Kiss J.J., De Jong E. and Bettany J.R., 1988, The distribution of natural radionuclides in native soils of the Southern Sas-katchewan, Canada: Journal of Environmental Quality, 17, 437-444.
  1. P.T. Krishna Kumar, V.V. Phoha, S.S. Iyengar "Classification of radio elements using mutual information: A tool for geo-logical mapping", Elsevier International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 2007, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-Information, Volume 10, Issue 3, , pp 305-311,September 2008.
  1. Lanne, E., 1986. Statistical multivariate analysis of airborne geophysical data on the SE border of the central Laplan greenstone complex. Geophysical Prospecting v. 34, 1111-1128.
  1. Lo, B. H., Pitcher, D. H., 1996. A case history on the use of regional aeromagnetic and radiometric data sets for lode gold exploration in Ghana. Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 592-595.
  1. Martz, L.W and de Jong E., 1990 – Natural radionuclides in the soils of a small agricultural basin in the Canadian Prairies and their association with topography, soil properties and erosion, Catena, Vol 17. p. 85-96.
  1. Mathews, L.M., 1977. A gamma-ray spectrometer survey of two British Columbie porphry copper-molybdenum deposits. MSc Thesis, Univ. of Western Ontario.
  1. Minty, B. and Wilford, J., 2004. Radon effects in ground gamma-ray spectrometric surveys. Exploration Geophysics, 35(4), 312-318.
  1. Minty, B., 2011. Short note: on the use of radioelement ratios to enhance gamma-ray spectrometric data. Exploration Geophysics, 42(1), 116-120.
  1. Moxham, R M., Foote, R S and Bunker, C M., 1965. Gamma-ray studies of hydrothermally altered rocks. Economic Geology 6, 653-71.
  1. Paradella, W.R., Bignelli, P.A., Veneziani, P, Pietsch, R.W., Toutin, T., 1997. Airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) integration with Landsat TM and gamma-ray spectrometry data for geological mapping in a tropical rainforest environment. Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil, International Journal of Remote Sensing, v.18, n.7, 1483-1502.
  1. Portnov, A.M., 1987. Specialization of rocks towards potassium and thorium in relation to mineralisation. International Geological Review, 29, 326-344.
  1. Saunders, D.F., Burson, K.R., Branch, J.F., Thompson, C.K., 1993. Relation of thorium-normalized surface and aerial radiometric data to subsurface petroleum accumulations. Geophysics, v. 58, 1417-1427.
  1. Saunders, D.F., Burson, K.R., Thompson, C.K., 1999. Model for hydrocarbon microseepage and related near-surface alterations. AAPG Bulletin, v. 83, n. 1, 170-185.
  1. Scott, K.M. & Dickson, B.L., 1990. Radiometric characterization of surface expressions of the alteration associated with Cu-Au mineralisation, Goonumbla, Central NSW. CSIRO Division of Exploration Geoscience, Restricted Report, 119R.
  1. Schetselaar, E.M., 2002, Petrogenetic interpretation from gamma-ray specterometry and geological data: the Arch Lake zoned peraluminous granite intrusion, Western Canadian Shield. Exploration Geophysics v. 33, 35-43.
  1. Shives, R.B.K., Charbonneau, B.W., Ford, K.L., 1997. The detection of potassic alteration by gamma-ray spectrometry - Recognition of alteration related to mineralisation. In Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial Conference on Mineral Exploration, edited by A.G. Gubins, 741-752 (reprinted in 2000, Geophysics, v. 65, n. 6, 2001-2011).
  1. Miranda J. Taylor, Keith Smettem, Gabriella Pracilio, and William Verboom, 2002, Relationships between soil properties and high-resolution radiometrics, central eastern Wheatbelt, Western Australia: Exploration Geophysics, 33:2, 95-102.
  1. Ward, S. H., 1981, Gamma-ray spectrometry in geological mapping and uranium exploration, Economic Geology, 75th Anniversary Volume, 840-849.
  1. Wellman, P., 1998. Mapping of a granite batholith using geological and remotely sensed data: the Mount Edgar Batholith, Pilbara Craton. Exploration Geophysics, v. 29, 643-648.
  1. Wilford, J.R., 1992. Regolith mapping using integrated Landsat TM imagery and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry – Cape York Peninsula. Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Record 1992/78.
  1. Wilford, J.R., 1995. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as a tool for assessing relative landscape activity and weathering development of regolith, including soils. AGSO Res. News, v. 22, 12-14.
  1. Wilford, J.R., Bierwirth, P.N., Craig, M.A., 1997. Application of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in soil/regolith mapping and applied geomorphology. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, v. 17, n. 2, 201-216.
  1. Wilford, J and Minty, B., 2007. The use of airborne gamma-ray imagery for mapping soils and understanding landscape processes. In “Developments in Soil Science – Volume 31: Digital Soil Mapping – An Introductory Perspective. Edited by P. Lagacherie, A.B. McBratney and M. Voltz. Elsevier 2007. 
    Webster, S.S., 1984. Comments on the use of gamma-ray spectrometry for tin prospecting. Exploration Geophysics, 15, 61-63.
  1. Yeates, A.N., Wyatt, B.W. and Tucker, D.H., 1982. Application of gamma-ray spectrometry for tin and tungsten granites, particularly within the Lachlan Fold Belt, New South Wales. Economic Geology, 77, 1725-1738.

Environmental

  1. Akerblom, G., 1995. The use of airborne radiometric and exploration survey data and technique in radon risk mapping in Sweden. Application of uranium exploration data and techniques in environmental studies. IAEA-TECDOC-827, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 159-180.
  1. Akerblom, G., Lindgren, J., 1997. Mapping of groundwater radon potential. Uranium exploration data and techniques applied to the preparation of radioelement maps. IAEA-TECDOC-980, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 237-255.
  1. Biggs, A J W and Philip, S R 1995. Soils of Cape York Peninsula. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba, Land Resources Bulletin QV95001.
  1. Bristow, Q., 1978. The application of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in the search for radioactive debris from the Russian satellite COSMOS 954 (Operation “Morning Light”). Geological Survey of Canada, Papers No. 78-1B, 151-162.
  1. Cook S.E, Corner R.J, Grealish G.J, Gessler P.E, Chartres C.J., 1996a - A rule-based system to map soil properties. Soil Science of America Journal 60, 1893-1900.
  1. Cattle, S.R., Meakin, S.N., Ruszkowski, P., Cameron, R.G., 2003. Using radiometric data to identify aeolian additions to topsoil of the Hillston district, western NSW. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 1439–1456.
  1. van Egmond, F.M., Loonstra, E.H., Limburg, J., 2010. Gamma ray sensor for topsoil mapping: the mole. In: Viscarra Rossel, R.A., McBratney, A.B., Minasny, B. (Eds.), Proximal Soil Sensing. : Progress in soil science, Vol 1. Springer.
  1. Erbe, P., Schuler, U., Wicharuck, S., Rangubpit, W., Stahr, K., Herrmann, L., 2010. Creating soil degradation maps using gamma-ray signatures. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1–6 August, Brisbane, Australia.
  1. Ford, K.L., Savard, M., Dessau, J.-C., Pellerin, E., Charbonneau, B.W., Shives, R.B.K., 2000. The role of gamma-ray spectrometry in radon risk evaluation: A case history from Oka, Quebec. GeoCanada 2000 Abstracts CD-ROM.
  1. George, R.J, Campbell, C., Woodgate, P., Farrell, S. and Taylor, P. (2000). Complementary Data and Cost Benefit Analysis of Utilising Airborne Geophysics for Salinity Management Purposes (see www.ndsp.gov.au)
  1. George, R.J, Campbell, C., Woodgate, P., Farrell, S. and Taylor, P. (2000). Complementary Data and Cost Benefit Analysis of Utilising Airborne Geophysics for Salinity Management Purposes (see www.ndsp.gov.au)
  1. George, R.J., Beasley, R., Gordon, I., Heislers, D., Speed, R., Brodie, R., McConnell, C. & Woodgate, P. 1998. The national airborne geophysics project - national report. Evaluation of airborne geophysics for catchment management. (see www.ndsp.gov.au).
  1. Gessler PE, Moore ID, McKenzie NJ, Ryan PJ (1995) Soil-landscape models and the spatial prediction of soil attributes. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 9, 421-432.
  1. Grasty R.L., Sander, L., 2001. Airborne gamma-ray surveys over Canadian nuclear sites. Expanded Abstracts, 63rd Annual Conference, European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers.
  1. IAEA, 1995. Application of uranium exploration data and techniques in environmental studies. IAEA-TECDOC-827, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
  1. Karlsson, S., Mellander, H., Lindgren, J., Finck, R., Lauritzen, B., 2000. RESUME 99, Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, Report from the NKS/BOK-1.2 Project Group Mobile Measurements and Measurement Strategies, NKS-15, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Secretariat, 78 p.
  1. Lahti, M., Jones, D.G., Multala, J., Rainey, M.P., 2001. Environmental applications of airborne radiometric surveys. Expanded Abstracts, 63rd Annual Conference, European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers.
  1. Lahti, M., Jones, D.G., 2003. Environmental applications of airborne radiometric surveys. First Break 21, 35–42.
  1. Martz, L.W., de Jong, E., 1990. Natural radionuclides in the soils of a small agricultural basin in the Canadian Prairies and their association with topography, soil properties and erosion. Catena 17, 85–96.
  1. McKenzie, N. J and Ryan, P.J., 2000 – Spatial prediction of soil properties using environmental correlation, Geoderma, 89, 67-94.
  1. Pate J. S., Verboom W. H. and P. D. Galloway 2001. Co-occurrence of Proteaceae, laterite and related oligotrophic soils: Coincidental associations or causative inter-relationships? Australian Journal of Botany 49: 529-560.
  1. Pickup, G and Marks, A., 2000 – Identifying large scale erosion and deposition processes from airborne gamma radiometrics and digital elevation models in a weathered landscape, Earth Processes and Landforms, 25, pp 535-557.
  1. Pracilio, G., Asseng, S., Cook, S.E., Hodgson, G., Wong, M. T. F., Adams, M. L and Hatton, T J., 2002 – Estimating spatially variable deep drainage across a central eastern wheat belt catchment, Western Australia, Aust J. Agric. Res.
  1. Rawlins, B.G., Lark, R.M., Webster, R., 2007. Understanding airborne radiometric survey signals across part of eastern England. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32 (10), 1503–1515.
  1. Rawlins, B.G., Marchant, B.P., Smyth, D., Scheib, C., Lark, R.M., Jordan, C., 2009. Airborne radiometric survey data and a DTM as covariates for regional scale mapping of soil organic carbon across Northern Ireland. European Journal of Soil Science 60 (1), 44–54.
  1. Roberts, L., Wilford, J., Field, J., Greene, R., 2002. High resolution ground based gamma ray spectrometry and electromagnetics to assess regolith properties, Boorowa, NSW. In: Roach, I. (Ed.), Regolith and Landscapes in Eastern Australia, 136. CRC LEME.
  1. Ryan PJ, McKenzie NJ, O'Connell D, Loughhead AN, Leppert PM, Jacquier D, Ashton LU (2000) Integrating forest soils information across scales: spatial prediction of soil properties under Australian forests. Forest Ecology and Management 138, 139-157.
  1. Sanderson, D.C.W., Allyson, J.D., Tyler, A.N., Scott, E.M., 1995. Environmental applications of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Application of uranium exploration data and techniques in environmental studies, IAEA-TECDOC-827, IAEA, Vienna, 71-79.
  1. Sanderson, D.C.W., J.M. Ferguson, 1997. The European capability for environmental airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 73, 213-218.
  1. Scheepers, R., Rozendaal, A., 1993. Redistribution and fractionation of U, Th and rare-earth elements during weathering of subalkaline granites in SW Cape Province, South Africa. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 17, 41–50.
  1. Taboada, T., Cortizas, A.M., Garcia, C., Garcia-Rodeja, E., 2006. Uranium and thorium in 
    weathering and pedogenetic profiles developed on granitic rocks from NW Spain. Sci Total Environ 356, 192–206.
  1. Taylor, M. J, Smettem, K, Pracilio, G and Verboom, W. H., 2002 Investigation of the relationships between soil properties and high resolution radiometrics, central eastern Wheatbelt, Western Australia, Exploration Geophysics, 33, 95-102.
  1. Wilford, J., Dent, D., Dowling, T. and Braaten, R, 2001. Rapid mapping of soils and salt stores - Using airborne radiometrics and digital elevation models. Geoscience Australia Research Newsletter, May 2001, No 34.
  1. Wilford, J., 2012, A weathering intensity index for the Australian continent using airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and digital terrain analysis, Geoderma, 183-184, 124-482.
  1. Wong MTF, Harper RJ (1999) Use of on-ground gamma-ray spectrometry to measure plant-available potassium and other topsoil attributes. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 267-77.

Miscellaneous

  1. Brutsaert, W.F., Norton, S.A., Hess, C.T and Williams, J.S., 1981 – Geologic and hydrologic factors controlling Radon-222 in ground water in Maine, Ground Water, Vol 19, No4, pp 407-417.
  1. Dickson, B.L., 1985 Radium isotopes in saline seepages, south-western Yilgarn, Western Australia, Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 49, pp 361-368.
  1. Verboom W. H., Galloway P. D. 2000. Hypothetical effects of rhizosphere associates of Proteaceae and their lateritic products on landscape evolution: Explanatory descriptions from southwestern Australia. In 'Proceedings of the Australian Society of Soil Science Inc. (WA Branch). Soils 2000 Conference'. (Eds C Tang, DR Williamson) pp 24-35. (Muresk Institute of Agriculture, Western Australia).

Books

  1. Adams, J.A.S., Lowder, W.M. (editors), 1964. The Natural Radiation Environment. University of Chicago Press, Illinois.
  1. Adams, J.A., Gasparini, P., 1970. Gamma-ray Spectrometry of Rocks. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  1. Kogan, R.M., Nazarov, I.M., Fridman, S.D., 1971. Gamma spectrometry of Natural Environments and Formations. Israel Programme for Scientific Translations.
  1. Tsoulfanidis, N., 1995. Measurement and detection of radiation. Taylor and Francis.

1. Coefficient of Variation (CV):

Reference number: CEI/IEC 1239, ANSI N42.34-2006.
The coefficient of variation is reported as a percentage and calculated from the average and standard deviation as follows:
 
 100 *  (Standard Deviation/Average)
For example, a CV of 1.94% in 1500 CPS means the standard deviation is equal to 1.94% of the average.  For some measures, the standard deviation increases as the average increases.  In this case, the CV is the best way to summarize the variation.  In other cases, the standard deviation does not change with the average.  In this case, the standard deviation is the best way to summarize the variation.
 
cps %Coefficient of Variation %Coefficient of Variation STD
150 3.8 <8.1
500 1.94 <4.5
1500 1.23 <2.5
5000 0.5 <1.4
15000 0.49 <0.8
 
CV
 

2. CS-137 Resolution Test: 

Cs-137
 

3. Survey Mode:

Survey
 
GPS Positioning and Digital Map Processing in 2D and 3D:
GPS Plot

Dimensions: